Toyota Land Cruiser 100/Amazon, Lexus LX 470

since 1997 of release

Repair and car operation



Toyota Land Cruiser, Amazon, LX470 Lexus
+ Identification numbers of the car
+ Governing bodies and receptions of safe operation of the car
+ Settings and routine maintenance of the car
+ Engine
+ Systems of cooling of the engine, salon and air conditioning heating
+ the Power supply system and production of the fulfilled gases
+ engine Electric equipment
- Control systems of the engine and decrease in toxicity of the fulfilled gases
   Specifications
   System of onboard diagnostics (OBD) - a principle of functioning and codes of malfunctions
   Oscillograph application for supervision of working signals of a control system
   Check of a condition and ESM replacement
   Information sensors - the general information and check of serviceability of functioning
   Replacement of information sensors
   System of catching of fuel evaporations (EVAP) - the general information, check of a condition and replacement of components
   System of operated ventilation of a case (PCV)
   The catalytic converter - the general information, check of a condition and replacement
+ gear shifting Box
+ Transmission line
+ Brake system
+ Suspension bracket and steering
+ Body
+ Onboard electric equipment



Oscillograph application for supervision of working signals of a control system

General information

Digital multimeters perfectly are suitable for check of the electric chains being in a static condition, and also for fixing of slow changes of traced parameters. At carrying out the dynamic checks which are carried out on the working engine, and also at identification of the reasons of sporadic failures by absolutely irreplaceable tool there is an oscillograph.

Some oscillographs allow to keep oscillograms in the built-in module of memory with the subsequent conclusion of results to the press or their transfer to the carrier of the personal computer already in stationary conditions.

The oscillograph allows to observe periodic signals and to measure tension, frequency, width (duration) of rectangular impulses, and also levels of slowly changing tension. The oscillograph can be used at performance of the following procedures:

  1. Identifications of failures of unstable character;
  2. Checks of results of the made corrections;
  3. Activity monitoring a lambda probe of a control system of the engine equipped with the catalytic converter;
  4. The analysis of the signals developed a lambda probe, which deviation of parameters from norm is unconditional the certificate of violation of serviceability of functioning of a control system as a whole. On the other hand, correctness of a form of impulses given out by the sensor can serve as a reliable guarantee of absence of violations in a control system.

Reliability and simplicity of operation of modern oscillographs do not demand any special special knowledge and experience from the operator. Interpretation of received information can be easily made by a way of elementary visual comparison of the oscillograms removed during check with the temporary dependences given below typical for various sensors and actuation mechanisms of automobile control systems.

Parameters of periodic signals

General information

Each signal removed by means of an oscillograph, can be described by means of the following key parameters (address to an accompanying illustration):

  1. Amplitude: A difference of the maximum and minimum tension (In) a signal within the period;
  2. Period: Duration of a cycle of a signal (ms);
  3. Frequency: Quantity of cycles in a second (Hz);
  4. Width: Duration of a rectangular impulse (ms, microsec);
  5. Porosity: The relation of the period of repetition to width (In foreign terminology return is applied porosity parameter called by the running cycle, expressed in %);
  6. Signal form: Sequence of rectangular impulses, individual emissions, sinusoid, sawtooth impulses, etc.

Usually characteristics of the faulty device strongly differ from reference that allows the skilled operator easily and quickly to reveal the refused component by the analysis of the corresponding oscillogram.

Signals of a direct current

The unique performance data of such signals is tension.

Signals of a direct current are developed by the devices presented on illustrations below:

The sensor of temperature of cooling liquid of the engine (ECT)



The sensor of temperature of soaked-up air (IAT)




Sensor of provision of a butterfly valve (TPS)




Warmed up a lambda probe




Measuring instrument of a volume expense of a stream of air (VAF)




Measuring instrument of weight of air (MAF)



Signals of an alternating current

The main characteristics of these signals are the amplitude, frequency and a signal form (address to illustrations below).

Sensor of a detonation (KS)



Inductive sensor of turns of the engine


The frequency modulated signals (WC)

Performance data of the frequency modulated signals are the amplitude, frequency, a form of a signal and width of periodic impulses.

Sources of a WC of signals are the devices presented on illustrations below:

Inductive sensor of provision of a cranked shaft (CKP)


Inductive sensor of provision of a camshaft (CMP)


Inductive sensor of speed of movement of the car (VSS)


Working at effect of the Hall sensors of turns and the provision of shaft


Optical sensors of turns and provision of shaft


Digital sensors of thermometric measurement of weight of air (MAF) and absolute pressure in the inlet pipeline (MAP)


The signals modulated on width of an impulse (ShIM)

Performance data of signals of pulse-width modulation (ShIM) are the amplitude, frequency, a form of a signal and porosity of periodic impulses.

Sources of signals of ShIM are the devices presented below on illustrations:

Fuel injectors


Devices of stabilization of turns of idling (IAC)


Primary winding of the coil of ignition


Electromagnetic valve of a purge of a coal adsorber (EVAP)


Valves of system of a retsirkulyatsiya of the fulfilled gases (EGR)


The coded sequence of rectangular impulses

Performance data are the amplitude, frequency and a form of sequence of separate impulses.

This sort of signals are generated by the module of memory of self-diagnostics of ECM of a control system of the engine.

By the analysis of width and a form of impulses, and also calculation of their quantity in each of groups can be считаны the codes which were stored in memory of malfunctions (a code 1223 – address to an accompanying illustration).

The amplitude and form of a signal remain the constants, the written-down value will stand out until memory of the module will not be cleared.

Interpretation of oscillograms

The form of a signal given out by an oscillograph depends on a set of various factors and can change considerably. In a look told before starting replacement of a suspected component in case of discrepancy of a form of the removed diagnostic signal with the reference oscillogram, it is necessary to analyse carefully the received result (address to illustrations below).

Digital signal


Analog signal


Tension

Zero level of a reference signal cannot be considered as absolute basic value, – "zero" of a real signal, depending on concrete parameters of a checked chain, it can appear shifted rather reference ([1] – address to an illustration the Digital signal) within a certain admissible range.

The full amplitude of a signal depends on supply voltage of a checked contour and also can vary in certain limits of rather reference value ([3] – address to an illustration the Digital signal and [2] – address to an illustration the Analog signal).

In chains of a direct current the range of a signal is limited to supply voltage. As an example it is possible to give a chain of system of stabilization of turns of the idling (IAC) which alarm tension does not change in any way with change of turns of the engine.

In chains of an alternating current the amplitude of a signal already unequivocally depends on frequency of operation of a source of a signal, so, the amplitude of the signal which is given out by the sensor of provision of a cranked shaft (CKP) will increase with increase of turns of the engine.

In a look told if the amplitude of a signal removed by means of an oscillograph appears excessively low or high (up to trimming of top levels), it is enough to switch only a working range of the device, having passed to the corresponding scale of measurement.

At check of the equipment of chains with electromagnetic management (for example, IAC system) at shutdown of a food tension throws ([4] – address to an illustration the Digital signal) which in the analysis of results of measurement can be ignored quietly can be observed.

It is not necessary to worry also at emergence of such deformations of the oscillogram, as a skashivaniye of the lower part of the forward front of rectangular impulses ([5] – address to an illustration the Digital signal) if, of course, the fact of a vypolazhivaniye of the front is not a sign of violation of serviceability of functioning of a checked component.

Frequency

Frequency of repetition of alarm impulses depends on working frequency of a source of signals.

The form of a removed signal can be edited and brought to a look convenient for the analysis by switching on an oscillograph of scale of temporary development of the image.

At supervision of signals in chains of an alternating current temporary development of an oscillograph depends on frequency of a source of a signal ([3] – address to an illustration the Analog signal), defined by engine turns.

As it was already told above, for reduction of a signal to a legible look it is enough to switch scale of temporary development of an oscillograph.

In certain cases the oscillogram of a signal appears rather reference dependence developed specularly that speaks a reversivnost of polarity of connection of the corresponding element and, in the absence of a ban on change of polarity of connection, can be ignored in the analysis.

Typical signals of components of control systems of the engine

Modern oscillographs are usually equipped only with two alarm wires together with a set various щупов, allowing to carry out device connection practically to any device.

The red wire is connected to a positive pole of an oscillograph and is usually connected to the plug of the electronic module of management (ECM). The black wire should be connected to reliably earthed point (weight).

Injectors

Management of structure of an air and fuel mix in modern automobile electronic systems of injection of fuel is carried out by timely correction of duration of opening of electromagnetic valves of injectors.

Duration of stay of injectors abroach is defined by duration developed the module of management of the electric impulses submitted on an entrance of electromagnetic valves. Duration of impulses is measured in milliseconds and usually does not fall outside the limits a range of 1-14 ms. The typical oscillogram of the managing director is presented by operation of an injector of an impulse on an accompanying illustration.

Often on the oscillogram it is possible to observe also a series of the short pulsations following directly an initiating negative rectangular impulse and supporting the electromagnetic valve of an injector abroach, and also the sharp positive throw of tension accompanying the moment of closing of the valve.

Serviceability of functioning of ECM can be easily checked by means of an oscillograph by a way of visual supervision of changes of a form of an operating signal at a variation of working parameters of the engine. So, duration of impulses at an engine provorachivaniye on single turns should be slightly higher, than at operation of the unit on low turns. Increase of turns of the engine should be accompanied by respective increase in time of stay of injectors abroach. This dependence is especially well shown when opening butterfly valve by short pressing a gas pedal.

 PERFORMANCE ORDER

1. By means of thin щупа from a set enclosed to an oscillograph connect a red wire of the device to the injector ECM plug of a control system of the engine. Shchup of the second alarm wire (black) oscillograph reliably earth.
2. Analyse a form of the engine of a signal read out during a provorachivaniye.
3. Having started the engine, check a form of an operating signal on single turns.
4. Having sharply pressed a gas pedal, lift frequency of rotation of the engine to 3000 rpm, duration of operating impulses at the moment of acceleration should increase considerably, with the subsequent stabilization at level equal, or slightly smaller peculiar to idling turns.

Fast closing of a butterfly valve should lead to the flattening of the oscillogram confirming the fact of a perekryvaniye of injectors (for systems with an otsekaniye of supply of fuel).

At cold start the engine needs some enrichment of an air and fuel mix that is provided with automatic increase in duration of opening of injectors. In process of warming up duration of operating impulses on the oscillogram should be reduced continuously, gradually coming nearer to value typical for single turns.

In injection systems in which the injector of cold start is not applied, at cold start of the engine the additional operating impulses which are showing on the oscillogram in the form of pulsations of variable length are used.

In the table provided below typical dependence of duration of operating impulses of opening of injectors on a working condition of the engine is presented.

Engine condition

Duration of an operating impulse, ms

Single turns

1.5-5

2000-3000 rpm

1.1-3.5

Full gas

8.2-3.5

Inductive sensors

 PERFORMANCE ORDER

Start the engine and compare the oscillogram removed from an exit of the inductive sensor with given on accompanying illustration reference.

The increase in turns of the engine should be accompanied by increase in amplitude of a pulse signal developed by the sensor.

Electromagnetic valve of stabilization of turns of idling (IAC)

In automotive industry electromagnetic IAC valves of a set of the various types which are giving out signals of also various form are used.

The common distinctive feature of all valves is that fact that porosity of a signal should decrease with increase of load of the engine, connected with inclusion of additional consumers of the capacity causing fall of turns of idling.

If porosity of the oscillogram changes with increase in loading, however at inclusion of consumers violation of stability of turns of idling takes place, check a condition of a chain of the electromagnetic valve, and also correctness of given-out ECM of a command signal.

Usually in chains of stabilization of turns of idling the 4-polar step-by-step electric motor which description is provided below is used. Check of 2-contact and 3-contact IAC valves is made in a similar manner, however oscillograms of alarm tension given out by them are absolutely unlike.

The step-by-step electromotor, reacting to given-out ECM a pulsing operating signal, makes step correction of turns of idling of the engine according to working temperature of cooling liquid and the current load of the engine.

Levels of operating signals can be checked by means of an oscillograph, measuring щуп which is connected serially to each of four plugs of the step-by-step motor.

 PERFORMANCE ORDER

1. Warm up the engine to normal working temperature and leave it working at single turns.
2. For increase in loading at the engine include head headlights, the air conditioner, or, on models with the power steering, turn a steering wheel. Turns of idling should fall to short time, however right there again to be stabilized at the expense of IAC valve operation.
3. Compare the removed oscillogram with given on an accompanying illustration reference.

Lambda probe (the oxygen sensor)

The oscillograms typical for most often of applied on cars a lambda probes of zirconic type in which basic tension of 0.5 Century is not used are provided in the Section. Recently the increasing popularity is gained by titanic sensors, the working which range of a signal makes 0-5 In, and high level of tension stands out at combustion of the grown poor mix, low, – enriched.


 PERFORMANCE ORDER

1. Connect an oscillograph between the plug a lambda probe on ECM and weight.
2. Make sure that the engine is heated-up to normal working temperature.
3. Compare the oscillogram displayed a measuring instrument to the reference dependence given on an accompanying illustration.

If the removed signal is not wavy, and represents linear dependence, that, depending on tension level, it testifies to excessive repauperization (0 – 0.15 In), or reenrichment (0.6-1 In) an air and fuel mix.

If on single turns of the engine the normal wavy signal takes place, try to squeeze out sharply several times loops of gas, fluctuations of a signal should not fall outside the limits a range of 0-1 Century.

The increase in turns of the engine should be accompanied by increase of amplitude of a signal, reduction – decrease.

Sensor of a detonation (KS)

 PERFORMANCE ORDER

1. Connect an oscillograph between the plug of the sensor of a detonation of ECM and weight.
2. Make sure that the engine is heated-up to normal working temperature.
3. Sharply squeeze out a pedal of gas and compare a form of a removed signal of an alternating current to the reference oscillogram provided on an accompanying illustration.
4. At insufficient image sharpness slightly knock on the block of cylinders around placement of the sensor of a detonation.
5. If to achieve unambiguity of a form of a signal it is not possible, replace the KS sensor, or check a condition of electroconducting of its chain.

Ignition signal on an exit of the amplifier of ignition

 PERFORMANCE ORDER

1. Connect an oscillograph between the plug of the amplifier of ignition of ECM and weight.
2. Warm up the engine to normal working temperature and leave it working at single turns.
3. On the screen of an oscillograph the sequence of rectangular impulses of a direct current should stand out. Compare a form of an accepted signal to the reference oscillogram provided on an accompanying illustration, paying close attention to coincidence of such parameters, as amplitude, frequency and a form of impulses.

At increase in turns of the engine frequency of a signal should increase in direct ratio.

Primary winding of the coil of ignition

 PERFORMANCE ORDER

1. Connect an oscillograph between the plug of the coil of ignition of ECM and weight.
2. Warm up the engine to normal working temperature and leave it working at single turns.
3. Compare a form of an accepted signal to the reference oscillogram provided on an accompanying illustration, positive throws of tension should have constant amplitude.

Unevenness of throws can be caused by excessive resistance of a secondary winding, and also malfunction of a condition of VV of a wire of the coil or a candle wire.