Toyota Land Cruiser 100/Amazon, Lexus LX 470
since 1997 of release
Repair and car operation
Toyota Land Cruiser, Amazon, LX470 Lexus
- Identification numbers of the car
Acquisition of spare parts
Technology of service, tool and workplace equipment
Poddomkrachivaniye and towage
Engine start from the auxiliary power supply
Automobile himikaliya, oils and greasings
Diagnostics of malfunctions of knots and car systems
+ Governing bodies and receptions of safe operation of the car
+ Settings and routine maintenance of the car
+ Systems of cooling of the engine, salon and air conditioning heating
+ the Power supply system and production of the fulfilled gases
+ engine Electric equipment
+ Control systems of the engine and decrease in toxicity of the fulfilled gases
+ gear shifting Box
+ Transmission line
+ Brake system
+ Suspension bracket and steering
+ Onboard electric equipment
Technology of service, tool and workplace equipment
Technology of service
There are some techniques of performance of procedures of maintenance and car repairs on which the reader will find references in the text of the real Management. Following to offered instructions will make work of the amateur mechanic of more effective, will allow to organize in the best way and qualitatively to execute various technical procedures and is pledge of half-number performance of all necessary works.
Nuts, bolts, hairpins and the screws serving for connection among themselves of two or more details are called as fixture. At work with elements of fixture it is necessary to remember some things constantly. Practically in any carving fixture this or that type of kontryashchy and stopping adaptations is applied. It can be lock washers, lock-nuts, lock tags or special fixing hermetic for carvings. All used fixture should be absolutely pure and direct, with an undisturbed carving and not rounded corners of six-sided turnkey heads. It is necessary to take for a rule without fail to make replacement of the damaged elements of fixture. Special самоконтрящиеся nuts with nylon or fiber inserts are not subject to a reuse, as at an otdavaniye lose the kontryashchy properties and at assembly always should be replaced.
The "become attached" fixture for the purpose of simplification of unscrewing and in order to avoid damages before an otdavaniye should be processed by special getting structure. Many mechanics prefer to use for this purpose turpentine which it is convenient to put from the special small canister with a long nouse. After fixture wetting by getting structure, it is necessary to give to means within several minutes properly to impregnate the oxidized contact layer. Strongly rusted fixture can be cut down by a chisel, is cut by a hacksaw or removed by means of special гайколома.
When cutting a head of a bolt or a hairpin oblamyvaniya on assembly the rest of a carving part can be drilled or taken by means of a special ex-tractor. The majority of repair trucks can undertake performance of this, no less than others (for example, restoration of the broken carving in carving openings), repair procedures.
Flat and lock washers at assembly should be established always into place in the original provisions. The damaged washers without fail replace with the new. Between a lock washer and a soft metal surface (for example aluminum), thin sheet metal or plastic of a fixed detail always it is necessary to establish flat washers.
Sizes of fixture
For many reasons manufacturers of cars all wider and more widely apply metric fixture. However, it is important to know a difference between this (more universal) fixture and fixture of the SAE standard used sometimes (or American). Despite external similarity, elements of these two types of fixture are not interchangeable.
All bolts as the SAE standard, and metric, are classified on diameter, a step of a carving and length. For example, the bolt of the SAE 1/2-13*1 standard has an inch floor in diameter, 13 rounds of a carving on one inch and length of 1 inch. Metric bolt M12-1.75*25 has diameter of 12 mm, a carving step (distance between the next rounds) 1.75 mm and length of 25 mm. Both bolts are outwardly almost identical, however are not interchangeable.
In addition to the listed signs, both metric bolts, and bolts of the SAE standard can be identified visually by a way of survey of a head. For a start, the distance between лысками heads of a metric bolt is measured in millimeters, whereas at American – in inches (the same is fair and for nuts). As a result, the wrench of the SAE standard is not necessary for use with metric fixture, and on the contrary. Besides, on heads of the most part of bolts of the SAE standard usually there are the radial notches defining the maximum admissible effort of a tightening of a bolt (durability degree). The more the quantity of notches, the is higher admissible effort (on cars bolts of a class of durability from 0 to 5 are usually applied). The class of durability of metric bolts is defined by a digital code. Figures of a code are usually cast, as well as on the American fixture, on a bolt head (on cars bolts of classes of durability 8.8, 9.8, and 10.9 are usually applied).
Also, on labels of a class of durability, it is possible to distinguish class SAE nuts from the metric. Dot labels are applied to identification of a class of durability of standard nuts, proshtampovyvayemy on one of face surfaces of a nut while marking of metric nuts is made by means of, besides, digital code. Than quantity of points, or the more value of a digital code more, the admissible effort of a tightening of a nut is higher.
Marking of a class of durability of standard six-sided nuts
Marking of a class of durability of metric six-sided nuts
End faces of metric hairpins also are marked according to a class of their durability. The digital code whereas on smaller have marking in the form of geometrical figures is put on large hairpins.
It is necessary to notice that the considerable part of fixture, in particular a durability class from 0 to 2, is not marked at all. In this case the only way of difference of the American fixture from metric is measurement of a step of a carving, or a sravnivaniye of rounds with rounds of unequivocally identified element.
It is necessary to remember that under classification of SAE only small fixture gets. Larger elements with not metric carving is fixture of the American standard (USS).
As the fixture of the same geometrical size (both standard, and metric) can have various classes of durability, at replacement of bolts, nuts and hairpins it is necessary to give particular attention to compliance of a class of durability established new elements removed on a durability class.
Sizes of metric carvings
Sizes of trumpet carvings
Sizes of carvings of the SAE/USS standard
Located on perimeter of any component the fixture (such as bolts of a head of cylinders, the pallet of a case and various covers) in order to avoid deformation of a detail should be given and be tightened in strictly certain order. The order of a tightening and an otdavaniye of such fixture is given in the text of the corresponding Heads of the Management, and also on сопр. illustrations. If the special order is not stipulated, in order to avoid component deformation, it is necessary to adhere given below instructions.
At the first stage all bolts/nuts should be tightened by hand. Further, each of fixture elements in turn reaches on one complete revolution, and transition from one bolt/nut to another should be carried out in a diagonal order (cross-wise). Further, having returned to the first element, it is necessary to repeat procedure in the same order, tightening fixture for a half of turn. Continue procedure performance, holding out each element already on a turn quarter for one approach until all of them will not appear tightened with demanded effort. At an otdavaniye of fixture it is necessary to operate in a similar manner, but upside-down.
Dismantling of components
Dismantling of all components should be carried out in such manner that at installation each detail could be established on the former place and the correct image. Try to remember characteristic external features of knot assembled, in case of need, make landing marking of the details which installation can be into place executed ambiguously (for example, the persistent washer equipped with a flute on a shaft, etc.). Placement of the removed details on a pure working surface in that order in what their removal was made will be good idea. Useful there will be also a drawing up of the elementary schematic sketches or step-by-step photography of an assorted component.
At an otdavaniye of fixture try to make marking of its initial situation on assembly. Often, installation of fixture and washers on a former place right after removal of the corresponding detail allows to avoid confusion at assembly. In the absence of such possibility, all fixture should be put in specially prepared for this purpose broken into sections and as appropriate marked box, or it is simple on the separate marked boxes. Such approach appears especially useful at work with the components consisting of a set of fine details, such as the carburetor, the generator, the klapanny mechanism, the dashboard or elements of a decorative upholstery of salon.
At a detachment of electric contacts and sockets it is necessary to pay attention to marking of wires or plaits by means of an adhesive tape with the put on it digital or alphabetic code.
Prokladochnye of a surface
On all cars sealing laying is applied to sealing of a place of a joint of interfaced surfaces of two or more details and serves for prevention of leakages of oils and other working liquids and maintenance in assembly of the increased pressure/depression.
Often such laying before installation becomes covered by a liquid or pastelike sealing compound (hermetic). Sometimes, eventually, or under the influence of the increased temperatures or pressure there is so strong "prikipaniye" of interfaced surfaces to each other that the partition of details becomes an exigeant task. With many cases successful separation of the "become attached" components is helped by an obstukivaniye them outside on joint perimeter a hammer with soft the brisk. It is possible to use for this purpose as well a usual hammer, striking blows through a wooden or plastic pro-rate. It is not necessary to make an obstukivaniye of cast cases and components sensitive to concussion. At emergence of such difficulties always first of all check, whether all fixture is removed.
Avoid a podrychazhivaniye of details by means of a screw-driver or the mount, entered into joint area as thus interfaced surfaces can be easily damaged that further will lead to development of leaks. If to avoid a podrychazhivaniye of the "become attached" elements of assembly it is not possible, use for this purpose the handle from an old smetka, but remember that all formed chips should be carefully removed both from interfaced surfaces, and from internal cavities of components of the dismembered knot.
After division of details their interfaced surfaces should be smoothed carefully out with scraper application for removal of traces of a material of old laying. The hardened fragments can be softened previously by means of the converter of a rust or a special chemical composition. As a scraper the piece of a copper tube with the flattened-out and pointed end in this case can be used. The remains of some laying easily can be removed by means of a copper brush, however, regardless of the applied method, interfaced surfaces as a result of processing should become absolutely pure and dry. If for any reason the interfaced surface appeared is damaged, before assembly of knot fill defects with prokladochny hermetic. In most cases it is necessary to use not stiffening (or not up to the end stiffening) hermetic.
Councils on removal of hoses
Measures of precautions which should be observed at removal of hoses, are very close to the measures shown at dismantle of laying. Avoid damage of surfaces of unions and branch pipes on which the ends of hoses as it can be at the bottom of development of leaks stretch. In a special measure the last requirement belongs to procedure of removal of hoses of a radiator. Owing to occurring in a path of system of cooling of various chemical reactions often occurs "prikipany" rubbers of hoses to surfaces of unions and branch pipes. For hose removal first of all weaken a collar of its fastening it. Then nippers seize a hose near a collar and start to rotate it on the union / a connecting branch pipe to the right-to the left. Continue to act in the stated manner before hose liberation, then remove a hose from the union. A small amount of the silicone or other greasing entered into a gap between the union and a hose, will allow to save forces. Before installation of a hose grease its internal surface adjacent to an end face, and also an external surface of the union with solution of soap water or a small amount of silicone greasing.
As the last resort, or in case of unequivocal need of replacement of a hose for the new end of a hose put on the union can be knifed and then is separated from an union surface. Thus try not to damage an edge union metal / a connecting branch pipe.
In case of damage of a shlangovy collar, replace it with the new. Collars of braided type usually weaken over time, therefore, regardless of a condition, it is better to replace them more practical screw or worm.
Selection of the high-quality tool is one of fundamental requirements for everyone who plans independent performance of procedures of maintenance or car repairs. At first sight, the expenses connected with acquisition of the demanded set of tools, can seem incommensurably big, however at their sravnivaniye with the expenses interfaced to performance of procedures of routine maintenance and the elementary car repairs at car repair shop, will appear the quite reasonable.
For the purpose of approach ordering three lists of the tools which have been conditionally entitled as below are provided to a choice necessary at repair and service of the car of the tool:« Tool kit for routine maintenance and the minimum repair "," a tool kit for the general and major maintenance "and" the special tool». The owners of cars who do not have practical experience of carrying out mechanical works, should begin with performance of the procedures limited to use of tools from the first list, increasing thus qualification and gradually expanding a range of the activity. In process of acquisition of skills, it is possible to pass to performance of more complex challenges, gradually filling up the range of tools available on hands. After a while the gained experience will allow to pass to performance of more difficult works demanding use of the tool from the second list (for the general and major maintenance of the car). When qualification of the performer will reach rather high level and will allow to save considerable means on independent performance of difficult repair procedures, it is possible to think of acquisition of the special tool.
Tool kit on routine maintenance and the minimum car repairs
The list provided below includes a minimum of units of the tools necessary for performance of procedures of routine maintenance and insignificant car repairs. Originators of the real Management recommend to begin with acquisition of a set of the combined wrenches (with a usual rozhkovy head on one end and with cap on other). Despite the increased cost of this set in comparison with cost of a set of usual rozhkovy keys, an expense will be justified, since such keys possess advantages of both types.
· A set of the combined keys from 8 to 19 mm
Tool kit for the general and major maintenance of the car
This tool is absolutely necessary at carrying out any operations on repair of the engine of the car and it is offered in addition to the first list. The complete set of replaceable face heads is included in the present list. At considerable cost, the set of replaceable heads brings invaluable advantage, thanks to the universality and convenience in the address, in particular in a combination to drives of various type entering into a set. Of 1/2 inches are recommended to prefer drives section (instead of 3/8 inches) since they, though are more expensive, can be used practically with any type of dinamometrichesky keys (in an ideal, the good mechanic should have at the order both such as drives). Cheaper alternative to a set of replaceable face heads is the set of tubular keys.
· A set of replaceable face heads (including TORH type heads) (or tubular keys), the sizes corresponding to the sizes of wrenches from the previous list
· Clamping pincers
· A chisel on 25 mm
The tools being adequately expensive, not required regularly, or demanding at use of implementation of instructions of manufacturers get to this category. If the field of activity of the amateur mechanic does not include frequent performance of difficult mechanical operations, acquisition of such tool becomes a bad investment of means – it will be more reasonable to get it by sharing the cost with friends, or as required to hire in car-care center workshops.
To the beginner mechanic can be offered some practical advice in respect of acquisition of the tool necessary for performance of procedures of service and car repairs. By preparation for carrying out procedures of routine maintenance or the minimum car repairs it is reasonable to get the tool separately. On the other hand, in case of planning of more large-scale works, it is simpler and more reliable to buy a set of the modern tool in shop of retail network. Set acquisition usually manages slightly cheaper than individual purchases and is often accompanied by the appendix in a set of a tool box. Further, for expansion of the range, separate tools, additional sets and a tool box of the bigger size can be bought in addition. Gradual expansion of a set of tools will allow to stretch expenses and to be defined in a choice of really necessary tools.
Specialized tool shops are the unique source of acquisition of some special tools. Regardless of a source choice, avoid cheap purchases, in particular at a choice of screw-drivers and replaceable face heads as term of their service for certain will appear short. The expenses connected with replacement and restoration of the cheap tool, as a result will appear incomparably more considerable, than costs of single acquisition of the qualitative goods.
Care of the tool and its storage
The good tool is a valuable investment of means, therefore it is reasonable to take care of keeping it clean and constant availability for service. After using the tool, before folding in a storage place, always carefully wipe its surface pure dry rags, deleting traces of dirt, greasing and the remains of metal particles. Never leave the tool scattered. After completion of works attentively check space under a cowl and under the car on existence of the forgotten tool.
For storage of such tool as screw-drivers, flat-nose pliers, hammers, etc., the tool comb fixed in a convenient place on a wall of garage is ideally suited. Sets of wrenches and replaceable face heads should be stored in metal boxes. The precision measuring tool should be stored in inaccessible to impact of corrosion, dry and pure places.
Always it is necessary to pay attention to a condition of a working surface of the tool. The shock part quickly a hammer in the course of use is subject to a rasklepyvaniye, screw-drivers lose over time sharpening of the stings. Do not stint to give a little time and attention to that by means of an emery paper or a file to remove расклепы and to put in order cutting edges. It is irreversible the worn-out or damaged tool in due time replace.
At careful leaving the tool is capable to serve belief and the truth during very long term.
Speaking about the tool, it is necessary to remember the workplace equipment. If carrying out more serious work, than simple maintenance of a vehicle is necessary, it is necessary to take care of preparation of the suitable worker of a platform.
It is necessary to recognize that many motorists are compelled to perform dismantle of the engine and other similar works far not in the conditions of garage or a workshop. However in any case the important requirement is roof or awning existence.
Whenever possible, any procedures on dismantling of parts of systems of the car should be made on a pure workbench with an equal working surface, or a strong table of convenient height. The workbench should be surely equipped with a vice with disclosure of sponges to 100 mm and with soft overlays for sponges.
As it was already mentioned above, on a working platform the pure dry place for storage of the tool, lubricant and cleaning liquids, shpaklevka, paint and varnish materials, etc. should be equipped.
It is necessary to notice that absolutely necessary tool is the electrodrill, therefore, the working platform should be equipped with the power supply for its connection. Drill existence with the boss to 9.5 mm and a set of qualitative drills considerably will facilitate carrying out many procedures.
At last, on a workplace always there should be a sufficient stock of old newspapers and pure, not ворсящейся the rags, intended for collecting the spilled liquids and rubbing of a working platform, the tool and car details.
It is necessary to hand over the fulfilled working liquids in the centers for utilization in tight container.
Never perform any works on the barefaced painted surface of body panels of the car, use protective overlays for wings, or, at the worst, cover the polished surfaces with old blankets.